conservation and efficient use of water in agriculture, FAO-56, empirical models, water requirement of plants


Water is one of the main limiting factors for achieving high productivity in agriculture. The hydric requirement of plants is fundamental for the dimensioning of the irrigation system and contributes to the better use of hydric resources. Moreover, the accurate computation of this element is essential for water management in agricultural systems. Nonetheless, due to the heterogeneity of different evapotranspiration estimation methods, the performance of its calculation can be considerably compromised. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to compare the methods for estimating reference evapotranspiration (ETo) by Benevides & Lopes, Camargo, Hargreaves & Samani, Jensen & Haise, Linacre, Makkink, Penman, Priestley & Taylor, Tanner & Pelton, and Turc, with the FAO-56 Penman-Monteith standard method, to evaluate the performance and accuracy of equational models. Furthermore, data from an automatic weather station belonging to the Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology (INMET), located in Palmeira das Missões, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, from January 1, 2020, to January 1, 2021, were used. Comparative statistical methods were utilized to express the accuracy of the models and indicate the most appropriate equations for the conditions of the selected location. Cluster analysis and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) were applied. For Palmeira das Missões, the model proposed by Hargreaves & Samani indicated the best results and was characterized as the most appropriate alternative to estimate the ETo more accurately. The method indicated the most favorable results for R2 (0.9890), d (0.9253), and r (0.9944). Furthermore, cluster and PCA analyses expressed the behavior of relationships between different mathematical models and meteorological parameters in relation to the ETo determination.


Não há dados estatísticos.

Biografia do Autor

Maicon Sérgio Nascimento dos Santos, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria

Laboratory of Agroindustrial Processes Engineering (LAPE), Federal University of Santa Maria (UFSM), Cachoeira do Sul, RS, Brazil

Isac Aires de Castro, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria

Department of Soils, Federal University of Santa Maria, Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

Bruna de Villa, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria

Department of Agricultural Engineering, Federal University of Santa Maria, Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

Giovani Leone Zabot, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria

Laboratory of Agroindustrial Processes Engineering (LAPE), Federal University of Santa Maria (UFSM), Cachoeira do Sul, RS, Brazil


AFZAAL, H.; FAROOQUE, A.A.; ABBAS, F.; ACHARYA, B.; ESAU, T. Computation of evapotranspiration with artificial intelligence for precision water resource management. Applied Sciences, v.10, n.5, 2020. https://doi.org/10.3390/app10051621

ALLEN, R. G.; PEREIRA, L. S.; RAES, D.; SMITH, M. Crop evapotranspiration - guidelines for computing crop water requirements. Rome: FAO, 1998. (FAO Irrigation and Drainage paper; 56).

ALTHOFF, D.; SANTOS, R.A.; BAZAME, H.C.; CUNHA, F.F.; FILGUEIRAS, R. Improvement of Hargreaves-Samani reference evapotranspiration estimates with local calibration. Water, v.11, n.11, p.1–16, 2019. https://doi.org/10.3390/w11112272

BOTTAZZI, M.; BANCHERI, M.; MOBILIA, M.; BERTOLDI, G.; LONGOBARDI, A.; RIGON, R. Comparing evapotranspiration estimates from the geoframe-prospero model with Penman–Monteith and Priestley-Taylor approaches under different climate conditions. Water, v.13, n.9, p.1–22, 2021. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13091221

ČADRO, S.; UZUNOVIĆ, M.; ŽUROVEC, J.; ŽUROVEC, O. Validation and calibration of various reference evapotranspiration alternative methods under the climate conditions of Bosnia and Herzegovina. International Soil and Water Conservation Research, v.5, n.4, p.309–324, 2017. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.iswcr.2017.07.002

CELESTIN, S.; QI, F.; LI, R.; YU, T.; CHENG, W. Evaluation of 32 simple equations against the Penman–Monteith method to estimate the reference evapotranspiration in the hexi corridor, Northwest China. Water, v.12, n.10, 2020. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12102772

DAROUICH, H.; RAMOS, T. B.; PEREIRA, L. S.; RABINO, D.; BAGAGIOLO, G.; CAPELLO, G.; SIMIONESEI, L.; CAVALLO, E.; BIDDOCCU, M. Water use and soil water balance of Mediterranean vineyards under rainfed and drip irrigation management: evapotranspiration partition and soil management modelling for resource conservation. Water, v.14, n.4, 2022. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14040554

DEBNATH, S.; ADAMALA, S.; RAGHUWANSHI, N. S. Sensitivity analysis of FAO-56 Penman-Monteith method for different agro-ecological regions of India. Environmental Processes, v.2, n.4, p.689–704, 2015. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40710-015-0107-1

DLOUHÁ, D.; DUBOVSKÝ, V.; POSPÍŠIL, L. Optimal calibration of evaporation models against Penman–Monteith equation. Water, v.13, n.11, 2021. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13111484

FERNANDES, A.L.T.; MENGUA, R.E.C.G.; MELO, G.L.; ASSIS, L.C. Estimation of reference evapotranspiration for coffee irrigation management in a producuttve region of Minas Gerais Cerrado. Coffee Science, v.13, n.4, p.426–438, 2018. https://doi.org/10.25186/cs.v13i4.1463

GHIAT, I.; MACKEY, H. R.; AL-ANSARI, T. A review of evapotranspiration measurement models, techniques and methods for open and closed agricultural field applications. Water, v.13, n.8, 2021. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13182523

GURSKI, B. C.; JERSZURKI, D.; DE SOUZA, J. L. M. Alternative reference evapotranspiration methods for the main climate types of the state of Paraná, Brazil. Pesquisa Agropecuaria Brasileira, v.53, n.9, p.1003–1010, 2018. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0100-204X2018000900003

HABEEB, R.; ZHANG, X.; HUSSAIN, I.; HASHMI, M. Z.; ELASHKAR, E. E.; KHADER, J. A.; SOUDAGAR, S. S.; SHOUKRY, A. M.; ALI, Z.; AL-DEEK, F.F. Statistical analysis of modified Hargreaves equation for precise estimation of reference evapotranspiration. Tellus, Series A: Dynamic Meteorology and Oceanography, v.73, n.1, p.1–12, 2021. https://doi.org/10.1080/16000870.2021.1966869

JERSZURKI, D.; SOUZA, J. L. M.; SILVA, L. C. R. Expanding the geography of evapotranspiration: An improved method to quantify land-to-air water fluxes in tropical and subtropical regions. PLoS ONE, v.12, n.6, p.1–19, 2017. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0180055

JO, W. J.; KIM, D. S.; SIM, H. S.; AHN, S. R.; LEE, H. J.; MOON, Y. H.; WOO, U. J.; KIM, S. K. Estimation of evapotranspiration and water requirements of strawberry plants in greenhouses using environmental data. Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems, v.5, p.1–8, 2021. https://doi.org/10.3389/fsufs.2021.684808

LINACRE, E. T. A simple formula for estimating evaporation rates in various climates, using temperature data alone. Agricultural Meteorology, v.18, n.6, p.409–424, 1977. https://doi.org/10.1016/0002-1571(77)90007-3

MAKKINK, G. F. Ekzamento de la formulo de Penman. Netherlands Journal of Agricultural Science, v.5, p.290-305, 1957. https://doi.org/10.18174/njas.v5i4.17731

PENMAN, H. L. Natural evaporation from open water, bare soil and grass. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London: Mathematical and Physical Science, v.193, p.120-145, 1948. https://doi.org/10.1098/rspa.1948.0037

PRIESTLEY, C. H. B.; TAYLOR, R. J. On the assessment of surface heat flux and evaporation using large-scale parameters. Monthly Weather Review, v.100, n.2, p.81–92, 1972. https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(1972)100<0081:OTAOSH>2.3.CO;2

RAZIEI, T.; PEREIRA, L. S. Estimation of ETo with Hargreaves-Samani and FAO-PM temperature methods for a wide range of climates in Iran. Agricultural Water Management, v.121, p.1–18, 2013. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2012.12.019

RSTUDIO®. Integrated development for R. Boston, MA: RStudio®, 2015. Available in: https://www.rstudio.com

R CORE TEAM®. R: a language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, 2019. Available in: https://www.R-project.org/

SALAM, R.; ISLAM, A.R.M.T.; PHAM, Q. B.; DEHGHANI, M.; AL-ANSARI, N.; LINH, N. T .T. The optimal alternative for quantifying reference evapotranspiration in climatic sub-regions of Bangladesh. Scientific Reports, v.10, n.1, p.1–21, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-77183-y

SANTOS, M. S. N.; CASTRO, I. A; ORO, C. E. D.; ZABOT, G. L.; TRES, M. V. Reference crop evapotranspiration in distinct agricultural regions of Southern Brazil: a comparison of improved empirical models. Revista Engenharia na Agricultura, v.29, 2021. https://doi.org/10.13083/reveng.v29i1.12418

TURC, L. Estimation of irrigation water requirements, potential evapotranspiration: a simple climatic formula evolved up to date. Annals of Agronomy, v.12, p.13-49, 1961.

VENANCIO, L. P.; CUNHA, F. F.; MANTOVANI, E. C.; SEDIYAMA, G. C.; EUGENIO, F. C.; ALEMAN, C. C. Penman-Monteith with missing data and Hargreaves-Samani for ETo estimation in Espírito Santo state, Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Engenharia Agrícola e Ambiental, v.23, n.3, p.153–159, 2019. https://doi.org/10.1590/1807-1929/agriambi.v23n3p153-159

WILLMOTT, C. J.; ROBESON, S. M.; MATSUURA, K. A refined index of model performance. International Journal of Climatology, v.32, n.13, p.2088-2094, 2012. https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.2419

ZHU, X.; LUO, T.; LUO, Y.; YANG, Y.; GUO, L.; LUO, H.; FANG, C.; CUI, Y. Calibration and validation of the Hargreaves-Samani model for reference evapotranspiration estimation in China. Irrigation and Drainage, v.68, n.4, p.822–836, 2019. https://doi.org/10.1002/ird.2350




Como Citar

Nascimento dos Santos, M. S., de Castro, I. A., de Villa, B., Zabot, G. L., & Tres, M. V. (2023). A COMPARATIVE RELATION OF DISTINCT REFERENCE CROP EVAPOTRANSPIRATION MODELS FOR SOUTHERN BRAZIL. Colloquium Agrariae. ISSN: 1809-8215, 19(1), 261–282. https://doi.org/10.5747/ca.2023.v19.h528

Artigos mais lidos pelo mesmo(s) autor(es)